Arunachal Pradesh, previously known as 'NEFA' (North East Frontier
Agency) is the largest state in the entire North East. Sprawled over
a total area of 83743 sq km, Arunachal Pradesh constitutes 2.55 percent
of the total area of India and 31.94 per cent of the North East. The
State is bounded by Bhutan in the west, China in the north and north
East, Myanmar in the east and plains of Assam in the south. It is
a thinly populated state lying roughly between 91.300 to 97.300 East
longitude and 26.280 to 29.300 North latitude.
There are about 20 major tribes in the State along with many sub-tribes.
The 'Adis' are believed to be the original inhabitants of this mountainous
region. Other major tribes include Nyishi, Monpa, Wancho, Mishmi,
Singpho etc. These tribes speak their own native languages even though
Hindi is the lingua franca in the State. According to the Census of
2001, Arunachal Pradesh has a total population of 1,091,117 scattered
over 12 towns and 3649 villages with a density of 13 persons per sq.
km. It constitutes 0.11 per cent population of India and 2.80 per
cent of the population of the northeast.
Arunachal Pradesh has the largest area under forest cover in the whole
of India after Madhya Pradesh. Agriculture is the chief means of livelihood
for the people in this state. 62.30 percent people of the total workers
in the State are cultivators and agricultural labourers. The per capita
income of this state stands at Rs 14338 at current prices and at Rs
9170 (1997-98) at constant prices for the year 1999-2000. Arunachal
Pradesh ranks 29th in the human resource development index and 30th
in the poverty index in India. The rate of literacy in Arunachal Pradesh
is 54.74 percent.
Arunachal Pradesh became a state of the Indian union in the year 1987.
Itanagar, its capital city is situated at an altitude of 530 mts above
the sea level. Part of the Eastern Himalayan ranges, Arunachal Pradesh
is one of the most picturesque tourist destination of India.
The State of Arunachal Pradesh is significantly rich in mineral resources.
The State is also rich in forest products such as bamboo, cane and