CHAPTER - VI
Source: Report on Livestock Censuses, Assam, 1998, 1994 and 1997
6.1.1 The Livestock Census 1997 revealed a significant increase (29.03 per cent) in the Poultry population of the State over that of 1994 Census. During the year 1997, the State had 179.80 lakh poultry population as against 139.34 lakh in 1994. The category-wise population of these species during 1997 were Fowls 129.31 lakh and Ducks 50.49 lakh.
6.2.0 The Livestock population of Assam mainly belong to the indigenous non-descript type for which the average productivity of livestock in Assam is poor in comparison to the position in other States of India. As per data made available by the State Directorate of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary the production of milk in Assam in 2002-2003 was estimated at 773 million litres as against 750 million litres in 2001-2002 indicating a nominal increase of 3.06 per cent over the previous year. Again the production of egg in 2002-2003 has been estimated at 509 million Nos. as against 507 million Nos. in the preceding year. In case of meat, the production during 2002-2003 was 20.94 thousand tonnes as against 19.48 thousand tonnes in 2001-2002. The table 6.2 shows the trend of livestock production in the State during the year 2000-2001, 2001-2002 and 2002-2003.
Source: Directorate of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Department, Assam
It has however been observed from the production data that the quantum of per capita availability of milk, egg and meat per month in Assam is very negligible, as the same has been worked out at 2.4 litres of milk, 1.5 nos. of eggs and 6.5 gm meat only.
6.3.0 The State Government has undertaken some schemes for development of Livestock, Poultry, Piggery etc. The main objectives of the schemes are Rapid Socio-Economic Development, creation of gainful employment in rural areas etc. The leading schemes continued to be implemented by the Department are as follows: -
(i) Intensive Cattle Development Project (ICDP):
It is a Livestock development scheme in the field of Artificial Insemination of Cattle. There are 11 Nos. of ICDP Centre in the State and at present, the activities of most of the centres are entrusted to the Assam Rural Infrastructure and Agricultural Services Project (ARIASP).
(ii) Co-ordinated Cattle Breeding Project:
The main objective of this scheme is to identify crossbreed bulls of high genetic merit and transmitting ability of milk for future breeding programme of the State.
(iii) Bovine Contagious Pneumonia Scheme (BCPP):
It is a centrally sponsored scheme meant to strengthen the working ability of bullocks and milk productivity of cows.
(iv) National Project on Rinderpest Eradication (NPRE):
It is centrally sponsored scheme for eradication of Rinderpest which is a contagious viral disease of four footed animal and eradication of contagious Bovine Pleure Pneumonia, a bacterial disease of Cattle.
(v) Piggery Development:
The Government has taken steps for upgradation of local through Pig Breeding Farms for Piggery development.
(vi) Poultry Development:
The scheme is meant for Development of Poultry Sector. There are 23 Nos. of Poultry Farms in the State with a good numbers of Marketing Centres.
Apart from the above schemes there were some other Livestock and development programmes, which includes Frozen Semen Bank Stockman Centre, Key Village Centre, Livestock Farm, Veterinary Hospital and Dispensaries. As per information available for 2001-2002, there are 26 (Twenty Six) numbers of Regional Artificial Insemination Centres (RAI), 7 (Seven), numbers of Frozen Semen Banks, 3 (Three) numbers of Frozen Semen Storage Depot, 11 (Eleven) numbers of Liquid Nitrogen Plant, 10 (Ten) numbers of Key Village Centres and 1 (One) number of Coordinated Cattle Breeding Project.
Further, a wide network of Veterinary Hospitals and Dispensaries exist in the State for providing animal health care. The numbers of such institution are 29 Hospitals, 298 Dispensaries, 25 Mobile Dispensaries and 125 Block Dispensaries.
The State has vast potential to generate income and employment to rural Population through growth in livestock sector. The Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary has established training institutions to provide training facility to the unemployed youth of the State. There are 4 (Four) numbers of such training institutions in the State.
DAIRY DEVELOPMENT IN ASSAM
6.4.0 The Dairy Development in Assam was initiated in the fag end of the Second Five Year Plan period with the basic concept of procurement, processing and distribution of milk aiming at Economic upliftment of Rural Milk producers and to help urban consumers to get quality milk at a reasonable price. It is also an excellent tool to provide employment opportunities as well as income source to the Farming Communities in the rural area. The Dairy Development Department, Assam has continued to take up various steps for milk production in the State by organising Dairy Cooperative Societies (DCS).
At present, there are 7 (Seven) numbers of Town Milk Supply Schemes (TMSS) in operation via. Guwahati (Central Dairy), Jorhat (Central Dairy), Dibrugarh, Tezpur, Silchar, North Lakhimpur and Manja (Hill District) and one Cremary Scheme at Garampani (Hill District). There are also 18 numbers of Chilling Plants under the above Town Milk Supply Scheme. The procurement and distribution of milk under Dairy Development during 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 are shown below.
Source: Directorate of Dairy Development, Assam
The Department has also produced and sold various types of milk products like Yoghart, Paneer, Flavoured Milk, Dahi, and Cream etc. during the year. Further, to develop the Dairy Industry in the State, the Department has also taken some other schemes/projects as follows.
A) MILK VILLAGE SCHEME
The enhancement of milk production and creation of self-employment amongst the SC/ST people and economically backward classes, the Department has taken up the milk village scheme by providing 2 (two) Milch Cows with Calf. This Milk Village Scheme also includes the provision of some other inputs like Training allowances to beneficiaries, Insurance Premium for cattle insurance, cost of cow shed construction, feed and fodder etc. The beneficiaries under the scheme are selected through FMC and Panchayats of the respective areas.
B) OPERATION FLOOD II PROJECT (OF II)
At the request of the Government of Assam, the National Dairy Development Board prepared a Dairy Development Project for the State, in the light of Operation Flood II Project of Government of India, and formed a Milk Union namely West Assam Milk Producer’s Co-operative Union Limited (WAMUL) in 1979-80. The Project envisaged milk marketing in Guwahati and other urban areas (Under the Project area) and developed ANAND pattern co-operative infrastructure in the milk-shed areas of the project to initiate production. There is a 60,000 litre/daily capacity plant in Guwahati and a cattle-feed plant commissioned at Changsari to meet the requirement of feed for the dairy animals.
C) INTEGRATED DAIRY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (IDDP)
For providing employment opportunities and generating additional income in the rural areas, the Government of India has instructed State Government for formulating an Integrated Dairy Development Project for Hill Areas and Backward Areas during Eighth Five Year Plan. Accordingly, State Government has implemented the Integrated Dairy Development Project covering ten Districts of the State. This project is Centrally Sponsored and Central Grant is hundred percent and it is being implemented under the State Directorate of Dairy Development. AT present, 330 Nos. Dairy Co-operative Societies (DCS) have been formed at village level within the project area and 182 Nos. DCS have been provided with inputs.
D) CHAR AREA DEVELOPMENT SCHEME:
The Char Area Development Scheme is having two Centres under Char Area Development Programme, one at Panbari (Dhubri) and another at Howly. These Centres established for extension works in Char Areas to motivate and educate the farmers.
E) RURAL DAIRY CENTRE:
There are two Rural Dairy Centres located at Nalbari and Hojai. The main function of these centres to collect raw milk from the nearly Co-operative Societies and bring the milk to centres for distribution in the urban areas.