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CHAPTER - VIII
Flood and Flood Control Measures

8.1.0 The recurrence of flood and erosion continued to be the burning problems of Assam. The Brahmaputra and the Barak are the main two rivers, which causes major problem during the monsoon period every year in the shape of floods, bank erosion and drainage congestion. In fact, the successive waves of devastating floods in almost every year have virtually destroyed the economy, more particularly, the rural economy of the State. The main factors causing extensive floods are the adverse physiography of the region, heavy rainfall, excessive sedimentation, frequent occurrence of earthquakes, hill/land sliding, reduction of forest area and encroachment of the riverine area. Usually Assam experience incessant rainfalls during the monsoon season, which normally commence from the month of May and remain till mid October, Apart from this, occurrence of floods in Assam has direct correlation with rainfall in the catchments areas of neighbouring states of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and the adjacent country of Bhutan.

8.1.1 In Assam, the flood and erosion cause enormous damages in the crops, livestock, land, property and bring untold miseries of the people at large. The National Flood Commission had estimated the area vulnerable to floods in Assam as 31.60 lakh hectares against 335.16 lakh hectares for whole India. Assam thus accounts for 9.4 per cent of total flood prone area of the country. Due to flood problem, the State has not been able to achieve the desired progress and prosperity in spite of having vast natural resources. During the year 2002, a total of 674.148 hectares of area were affected by floods resulting in heavy damages, the value of which is estimated at Rs 18,678.60 lakh. The table 8.1 shows the extent of damages caused by flood in the state over the last five years.

TABLE 8.1
DAMAGES CAUSED BY FLOOD IN ASSAM

Item

Unit

Ninth Five Year Plan Period

10th Five Year Plan Period

1.

Area effected

Hect.

753409

1323751

223107

966053

239511

674148

2.

Population affected

No.

2750624

6957095

890648

3888385

542634

7550561

3.

Human lives lost

No.

28

125

3

36

4

65

4.

Lost of Cattle

No.

1961

86224

992

19988

15

4294

5.

Villages affected

No.

5408

7740

1103

5090

1277

6807

6.

Area croded

Hect.

49351

5634

9838

-

5348

429657

7.

Value of crop loss

Rs in lakh

1945.58

46330.36

5046.38

17351.57

835.79

14559.95

8.

Value of houses damaged

Rs in lakh

998.49

3364.62

149.91

1648.45

259.49

4118.65

9.

Total value of damages

Rs in lakh

2944.07

49694.98

5195.99

19000.02

1095.28

18678.60

Source: Water Resources Department, Assam

FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES:

8.1.2 In order to prevent the menace of recurring floods, different flood management schemes/projects are in operation in the State. The Table 8.2 shows the achievement under various flood control programmes in Assam.

TABLE 8.2
ACHIEVEMENT UNDER VARIOUS FLOOD CONTROL PROGRAMMES IN ASSAM

Item

Unit

Upto the end of 8th Five Year Plan

Upto the end of 9th Five Year Plan

2002-2003

Total

1. Embankments and R/S

Km.

4448.000

4458.600

1.100

4459.700

2. Drainage channels

Km.

850.690

850.690

Nil

850.690

3. Protection and Anti Erosion Work

No.

629

681

4

685

4. Major Sluices

No.

85

85

Nil

85

5. Benefited Area

Lakh Hect.

16,170

16.181

0.001

16.182

6. Retirements

Km.

-

47.470

-

47.470

Source: Water Resources Department, Assam

8.1.3 Achievement and Expenditure made under different heads of flood control measures in Assam during the last six years are shown in tables 8.3 to 8.7.

TABLE 8.3
ACHIEVEMENT AND EXPENDITURE UNDER DIFFERENT FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES IN ASSAM

Year

Achievement

Expenditure

(Rs in lakh)

Embankment and R/S (Km.)

Retirement (Km.)

Anti-Erosion Works (No.)

Drainage (No.)

Benefited area (Hectare)

1997-1998

2.500

22.482

14

5

300

1489.01

1998-1999

2.000

23.275

10

Nil

300

1301.65

1999-2000

2.000

1.750

7

Nil

1000

1606.38

2000-2001

2.000

-

7

1 (40% completed)

200

1635.00

2001-2002

2.100

-

14

-

200

800.00

2002-2003

1.100

-

4

Nil

100

941.22

 

TABLE 8.4
ACHIEVEMENT UNDER CENTRAL LOAN ASSISTANCE

Year

Achievement

Expenditure
(Rupees in lakh)

1998-1999

48 Nos. of schemes in progress

1800.00

1999-2000

48 Nos. of schemes on the verge of completion

750.00

2000-2001

8 Nos. of Schemes physically completed, 36 Nos. of Schemes on the verge of completion

1129.67

2001-2002

4 Nos. of schemes physically completed

Nil

2002-2003

39 Nos. on-going schemes

Nil

 

TABLE 8.5
ACHIEVEMENT OF SCHEMES UNDER NON-LAPSABLE CENTRAL POOL OF RESOURCES

Year

Achievement

Expenditure
(Rupees in lakh)

1998-1999

25 Nos. of schemes costing Rs 64.07 crore taken up

500.00

1999-2000

R/S 31.4 Km., Embankment 5.994 Km., A/E 3 Nos

500.00

2000-2001

25 Nos. of ongoing schemes

500.00

2001-2002

35 Nos. of on-going schemes

500.00

2002-2003

28 Nos. of on-going schemes

2525.00

 

TABLE 8.6
ACHIEVEMENT UNDER N.E.C. SCHEMES

Year

Achievement

Expenditure
(Rupees in lakh)

1998-1999

4 Nos. of schemes costing Rs 1.3.10 crore has taken up

40.00

1999-2000

3 Nos on the verge of completion

55.00

2000-2001

2 Nos. of Schemes completed both physically and financially, 1 No. of Scheme on the verge of completion

49.87

2001-2002

1 No. of Scheme completed

179.60

2002-2003

1 No ongoing scheme and 2 Nos new schemes and survey schemes for small projects.

Nil

 

TABLE 8.7
ACHIEVEMENT UNDER JRC SCHEME

Year

Achievement

Expenditure

(Rupees in lakh)

1998-1999

3 Nos. of Schemes on the verge of completion

55.00

1999-2000

4 Nos. of Schemes on the verge of completion

105.20

2000-2001

2 Nos. of Schemes completed but financial liabilities to be cleared, 2 Nos. of schemes on the verge of completion

105.00

(Upto March/2000)

2001-2002

1 No. of scheme physically completed

44.25

2002-2003

1 No. of on-going scheme on the verge of completion

35.75

The New Schemes to be taken up by the Water Resources Department, Assam are shown in Table 8.8

TABLE 8.8
NEW SCHEMES TO BE TAKEN UP DURING 2003-2004

Plan

Nos. of schemes

Total amount (Rs in lakh)

Target of Achievement

Physical (%)

Financial
(Rs in lakh)

State (General Area)

13

371.84

20

4.60

CSS

31

14411.63

35

5254.00

Source: Table 8.3 to 8.8 Water Resources Department, Assam


The Department also completed 92 Nos. of Flood Damage Repair (FDR) Schemes in different Districts during the year 2002-2003 and the amount involved for the same was Rs 2760.85 lakh.

By, adopting short-term measures, the State Water Resources Department has protected 16.18 lakh hectares of land from flood and erosion out of 31.60 lakh hectares of flood prone areas. For effective management of flood and erosion in the valley, long term measures in the form of storage reservoir in the upper catchments areas of the river basin and watershed management are considered very essential.

 

 

 

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