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ANNUAL PLAN 2002-03
Forestry and Wildlife Sector

DEMAND NO. 13

The Himalayas have always held a deep fascination for the foresters all over the world because of the varied nature of flora and fauna found here. Sikkim is a state which is entirely within the Himalayas, has forests ranging from tropical to temperate and alpine zone.

The state of Sikkim with only 0.22% of the geographical area of the country harboars around one third of the flowering plants of India. It has about 4500 species of flowering plants and 350 species of ferns and fern allies. Sikkim of the home of the Orchids and has about 450 species both in the sub-tropical and temperate regions. Available genetic material of Orchids in Sikkim has immense potential for commercial varieties. The biodiversity of Sikkim is very rich and also includes wild relatives of more than 400 species of medicinal plants in the state. The state support luxuriant tropical and alpine vegetation in its pristine virgin form. Its unique geographical position, varied topography, high annual precipitation, minimum demographic pressure make the state one of the richest botanical treasure house of the country. While forest cover accounts for over 44% of the total geographical area of the state, the total area of the state under the administrative control of Forests, Environment and Wildlife Department in the state is over 81% of its total geographical area. We have set aside 34% of our geographical area for the protected area network consisting of the National Park, Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserve as against a figure of 5% or so of the country Forested area hitherto unspotted animals like Takin are reappearing. In ex-situ conservation center wild animals are multiplying. We have successfully bred Red Panda in out Zoological Park.

Explosion in population has led to increased demand of forest products such as fuel wood, fodder and timber in the state. The State Government has given prime importance to free and fodder plantation in all available degraded forestlands and also in non-forest and private wastelands with peoples participation.

Due to increase in livestock population, grazing in the forest areas has been increasing. All the above-mentioned activities are likely to contribute to degradation of forests and environment. To overcome the situation and to increase the participation of the local people in the conservation and management of forest resources of the state and to maintain the ecology of the state without hampering developmental activities, it has become imperative to review the situation and to evolve, for the future a strategy of environment and forest conservation. Conservation includes preservation, maintenance, sustainable utilization, restoration and enhancement of natural environment. There has been tremendous increase in the air pollution in the urban areas due to the increase in the number of vehicles over the years. Due to hilly terrain, land available for non-forestry purposes is very limited. So there is a great demand on this land for various sectors. Land use planning and land management is very important for optimal utilization of land resources in the state. Forests serve an important purpose in a hilly terrain such as that of Sikkim as all forms of land use, including the infrastructure sector as such power generation and the life of roads depend upon the environment stability, which is regulated b the food forest cover.

Although the total tree cover in the state is about 44%, the density of tree cover in main areas is very low. The state would try to increase the area under tree cover further and also improve the density of the tree cover.

A massive need based and time bound ‘Programme of Afforestation and Tree Planting’ needs to be taken up with grater emphasis in production of fuel wood and fodder in degraded and denuded lands, both forest and non-forest.

An urban forestry programme is a necessary to improve the environment in the urban areas of all the districts through planting of ornamental free and bushes. Such a programme will increase the scenic beauty of the towns as well as check soil erosion and landslides in these areas.

As a part of the Tenth Five Year Plan strategy the states are taken to be needed for improving the forest cover. The State Government should strive to provide substantial allocation for Forestry Sector for increasing forest cover. Institutional mechanism should also be strengthened to ensure active participation of the people in the management., regeneration and rejuvenation of the forest wealth. Mission mode approach is needed to be adopted tom protect the rich biodiversity and the forest cover. A very strict regime of compliance is required to be maintained in regard to the management of forest in pursuance to the orders passed by the Supreme Court of India.

During the Tenth Five Year Plan, special efforts are needed for greater input of recent technological advancement in the field of free improvement, modern nursery techniques, modern fire fighting technology, improved communication system, use of remote sensing, geographical information system and use global position system, use information technology for setting up of management information system for efficient management of forest resources and improvement of forest productivity.

OBJECTIVES

During the Tenth Five Year Plan, greater emphasis will be given to the following activities.

1. Strengthening of infrastructure for protection of forest areas in line with the policy of practicing conservation rather than exploitation through commercial forestry.

2. Strengthening of forest fire control and management system, institution of modern forest fire control methods to reduce lose of forest cover and emission of green house gases.

3. Forest boundary demarcation, survey and erection of boundary pillars for checking forest encroachment, Institute measures and implement programmes for survey and demarcation of forest areas to consolidate the forest resources and prevent their decimation from encroachment and other forms of biotic interference.

4. Formation of Joint Forest Management Institutions in as yet uncovered areas rapidly in order to broad base peoples participation in management of forests.

5. Exploration of the possibility of the import of wood products and wood alternatives in order to conserve the forest biodiversity of the Sikkim Himalayas.

6. Development of Farm Forestry as a means to increase the forest cover as well as to produce biomass for on-farm use. This will helping protecting and conserving the Reserved Forest areas for the intangible benefits that accrue from them.

7. Identification of wastelands, degraded forests and undertaking programmers for their restocking by afforestation, natural regeneration on watershed basis with active participation of the local people based on micro plan prepared by the Joint Forest Management Committees.

8. Effective mechanism needs to be developed for promotion of Joint Forest Management for protection and regeneration of forest areas with suitable and agreeable usufruct sharing mechanism to the stakeholders. Programmes are required to be taken up for capacity building, training, awareness generation and empowerment of the Joint Forest Management Committees in keeping with the provisions of different Forest Acts under implementation in the state.

9. Programmes for eco-development along protected area network, such as, Wildlife Sanctuaries, National Park and Biosphere Reserve are need to be implemented with pace and greater vigour.

10. In-situ and ex-situ conservation and propagation of rare and endangered medicinal plants and aromatic plants needs to be taken up in mission mode.

11. Development of post harvesting and value addition techniques for non-timber forest produce for economic upliftment of the people living in the vicinity of forest areas.

12. Detailed survey and setting up of electronic data base on biodiversity resources of the state for undertaking systematic plans and programmes for their conservation and also for protection of intellectual property rights.

13. Tree improvement programmes such as, demarcation of seed stands, seed orchards and clonal orchards, study of ethno-botanical survey are required to be taken up in large scale for genetic improvement of the forest crop raised through reforestation.

14. Improved nursery techniques using organic compost/vermin compost, improved green house and shed house techniques for vegetative and colonal propagation needs to be introduced in large scale.

15. Tissue culture technique for mass propagation of rare and endangered plants also requires to be initiated.

16. Programmes for in-situ and ex-situ conservation of rare and endangered fauna needs to be strengthened.

17. Use of modern techniques of remote sensing, GIS and GPS techniques and information technology for development of effective management information system for management of the forest resources of the state in a more efficient manner.

18. Setting up of computer network down up to the sub-division level.

19. Forest inventory, resource survey, forest cover monitoring, habitat mapping of protected areas and detailed stock mapping of the forest cover by using modern techniques.

20. Preparation of Forest Management Plans/Working Plans for all the four districts of the state on scientific basis needs to be given priority.

21. Programmes for protection and management of lakes and wetlands, river conservation action plan for Teesta and Rangit rangit rivers is required to be initiated.

22. Eco-restoration and rehabilitation of landslides by using modern biotechnological inputs by improving soil nutrient status by planting leguminous and deep rooted colonizers species needs to be given priority.

23. Promotion of fuelwood saving devices such smokeless chulahs, improved cardamom driers, use of LPG and solar energy devices for protection of forests in the state are to be provided frist in model villages to be followed by other villages.

24. Setting up of air and water pollution monitoring units in major towns to control pollution needs to be taken up.

25. Training on modern forestry practices needs to be imparted to the field functionaries of Forests, Environment and Wildlife Department as well as to the members of the Joint Forest Management Committees.

During the 9th Five Year Plan, the Department of Forests, Environment and Wildlife has tried its best to meet these objectives even after so many financial constraints. Today forestry has become a part of development enterprise and if appears very well that forestry and forest related activities have a special potential for employment generation and upliftment of the rural economy.

STRATEGY

The strategy of the 10th Five Year Plan will be Conservation oriented. Without support and co-operation of the people forests cannot be protected and forestry cannot go ahead. Massive afforestation programmes with full and active participation of the local people by institutionalisation of peoples participation in protection and conservation of the forests and unique biodiversity of the state by constituting and recognizing Joint Forest Management Committees, Watershed Committees, User Groups and Self Help Groups in every village with mutually agreeable mechanism of the usufruct distribution among stake holders are proposed in the 10th Five Year Plan.

ANALYSIS

Sikkim has a special role to play as far as maintenance of the ecological balance in the Eastern Himalayas is concerned. The eco-system in this region is geologically fragile and ecologically sensitive and it is incumbent in our part tensure that apart from protection and preservation of the existing green cover, more green cover is to be added so as to increase soil stability, reduce runoff and protect the fertile topsoil from being washed away. The growth of population and their continued dependence on fuelwood as a major source of rural energy will result in continuous pressure on the limited forest resources. While over 44% of the states geographical areas is under green cover, a substantial portion of this area is under degradation to some degree or the other due to biotic and abiotic factors such as encroachment, grazing and landslides. The threat from the growing population, the need of more and more land for agriculture and house building, the increasing demand of fuelwood fodder and timber has posed tremendous pressure to the forests in the state and forestry programmes will have to take care of these challenges. Although over 81% of the state’s total geographical area is under the administrative control of Forests. Environment and Wildlife Department and over 44% is under tree cover, the outlay in the 9th Five Year Plan set aside was less than 2% of the total plan size of the state. The state has to prepare Forest Management Plans (Working Plans) for all the four district of the state in pursuance to the order of the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in Writ Petition (Civil) No. 202 of 1995 (T.N. Godavarman Thirumulkpad versus Union of India and Others). Development of infrastructure for effective implementation of the Indian Forest Acts. 1927, Wildlife Protection Act. 1972. Forest (Conservation) Act 1980. Sikkim Forests, Water Courses, Road Reserve Protection (Preservation) Act, 1988 and Pollution Control Act.

SIZE OF THE PLAN

With due consideration of the above factors and constraints as well as justification of the objectives and strategy, the size of the 10th Five Year Plan has been proposed as follows.

Financial: Rs 664.20 lakhs

COMPONENTWISE PROPOSAL

1. DIRECTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Annual Plan 2002-2003 : Rs 98.60 lakhs.

The proposed outlay meant to strengthen the administration of the head office and other offices with facilities to execute the work more efficiently and effectively. The proposed outlay also includes the establishment cost and recruitment need of 1 Additional Director, 13 Assistant Conservator of Forests, 26 Foresters, 93 Forest Guards, 1 Deputy Director and 1 Inspector in the sericulture wing of the Department and 20 ministerial staff in different section of the Department. The proposed outlay is also meant for computerization of the Administrative Section. Accounts Section, Planning and Statistical Cell, Research Cell and for setting up of the Monitoring and Evaluation Cell and its computerization.

In pursuance to the emphasis of the State Government for preservation of the pristine biodiversity for promotion of eco-tourism in the State, it has become utmost necessary to protect and preserve the forests of the state and regeneration of the degraded forest areas with active participation of the local community and the voluntary organizations. As all the forests are not accessible by roads, more manpower is required to protect the vulnerable forests especially in the bordering areas.

2. PLANNING, STATISTICS AND DATABASE

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 21.75 lakhs

The Department of Forests, Environment and Wildlife has a full-fledged Planning and Statistical Cell. The performance of the Department can be ascertained by analysing the data obtained from various sections and future planning depends after proper analysis of the past performances and the impact of various schemes in the life of the local communities. The Planning and Statistical Cell of the Department is required to be strengthened by providing three sets of Computers for data processing, analysis and compilation of information pertaining to Forestry, Wildlife and Environment. To meet the salaries and other establishment cost including cost of computers, an outlay of 21.75 lakhs has been Proposed the Annual Plan 2002-2003.

3. MONITORING, EVALUATION AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs NIL

The Department of Forests, Environment and Wildlife requires a separate Wing headed by a Deputy Conservator of Forests for monitoring and evaluation of the schemes implemented by the Department as well as the Integrated Watershed Development Projects funded by the Government of India and being implemented through the Zilla Panchayats in the respective districts. The Division has to monitor all the schemes implemented by the Department and the Zilla Panchayats during the 9th Five Year Plan. Till the end of the 9th Five Year Plan, most of the State Plan and Centrally Sponsored Schemes have not been monitored and evaluated and their impact in the life of the local communities has not been assessed in a desired manner. A system of proper monitoring and evaluation and assessment of impact of the schemes in the socio-economic development of the people and on the environment is required to be evolved. This scheme has been aimed at providing proper infrastructure and manpower so that the evaluation of most of the schemes is carried out in proper manner. For meeting the establishment cost, conveyance, and other overhead expenses of the Monitoring and Evaluation Cell.

4. SURVEY AND UTILIZATION OF FOREST RESOURCES

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 20.00 lakhs

Sikkim is one of the Biodiversity Hot Spot in the Country. It has the unique geographical location with the altitude ranging from about 300 in the confluence of Teesta and Rangit rivers to over 5500 metres of the Khangchendzongs Range. The vegetation type varies from the Tropical Dry Decious in the foothill to the alpine scrub in the Himalayas. The high altitude flora comprises of a variety of medicinal plants. The local population is using the medicinal plants to cure different diseases and ailments. These plants are of ethn-botanical importance. A detailed survey of plant and animal diversity of the state biodiversity has been proposed to be carried out during the Tenth Five Year Plan.

Sikkim State Forest land had been Surveyed and Boundary line Demarcated by providing the clear boundary line and erecting the boundary post during the regime of Chogyal in 1909-1911. After a lapse of 90 years, now it is proposed to take up re-demarcation of boundary line and erection of boundary post during the 10th Five Year Plan. It is felt necessary to take up re-demarcation work at least in the Reserve Forest as there is tremendous pressure mounting day by day on encroaching of forest land by number of villagers and other agencies. The creation of clear boundary lines and erection of boundary post will not only help to save the forest land but it will also improve Environment Biodiversity, Eco-system and tree coverage.

The Survey & Demarcation Wing of the Department which is handed by O.S.D. requires full fledged office of the DFO in all the four Districts assisted by one ACF in each district, two R.O’s 3-4 B.O.’s 3-4 Surveyors, 6-8 Chainman and 2 draftsman and 2 tracers in the technical section of each Division. In the Ministerial and Accounts section each division will require one UDC, one LDC, one accountant one accounts clerk and minimum of 2 peons Presently there is only one Division. The Reserve Forests were demarcated as far back as during 1902 and Khasmal of Gaucharans were demarcated in the year 1905 and 1911 respectively. Since then the population of State has gone up tremendously and there has been encroachments in R.F., Khasmal as well as in Gaucharans. Sikkim being a hilly State with rugged terrain and having several problems inaccessibility of the remote areas, it has become difficult to ascertain the exact area of such encroachments of Forrest Land. A detail survey of the Forest boundaries as well as erection of boundary pillars, clearing of boundary lines and to initiate eviction of the encroachers will be the prime task on under this scheme.

The Forests are located mainly on the hill tops and valleys. The areas in between are inhabited and are mainly agricultural land. The forest areas adjacent to the villages are very much vulnerable to encroachment.

Due to paucity of fund in the 9th Five Year Plan this scheme was not implemented and has been proposed as new scheme of the 10th Five Year Plan.

5. FOREST CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND REGENERATION

Although Sikkim has a very rich biodiversity but the facts and figures are not available for the management of the existing natural resources on a sustainable basis. For maximization of the productivity without negative impact on the rich biodiversity, the following activities are proposed.

Afforestation Schemes:

Annual Plan 2002-2003 : Rs 34.50 lakhs Physical Target: 115 Ha

The estimation of the Forest Survey of India reveals that there are large chunks of degraded forest lands that need to be taken up for forestry development in order to provide both the tangible and intangible benefits that accrue from forests. It has been estimated that there is more than 1000 Sq. Kms of forest land that need attention due to its degraded state. Much of this degraded land is within those forest lands that are classified as reserved state. Much of this degraded land is within those forest lands that are classified as reserved. These are administered and controlled by the territorial divisions in the four districts of the State and hence the responsibility of developing them also vests with those divisions.

During the Ninth Plan there were two schemes that were in operation to bring such degraded lands under afforestation. These were the "Greening of Ecologically Fragile Areas" and the "Rehabilitation of Fire Demaged Areas" Scheme. The targeted coverage of these schemes could not be achieved due to the increase in the wage rates during the period of the Plan. It has been proposed to continue the scheme in the 10th Plan and for the annual Plan 2002-03 an outlay of Rs 34.50 lakhs has been proposed.

(ii) Forest Protection

Annual Plan 2002-2003 : Rs 54.50- lakhs

Sikkim has one of the largest forest areas in the country in terms of percentage of geographical area of the State. Forests cover 44% of the State’s area. It abounds in floral wealth and it is estimated that there are about 4000 species of angiosperms, 300 species of terms and 23 species of bamboos that grow at various altitudinal zones. Besides, Sikkim is the home of more than 450 species of orchids, 50 species of rhododendrons and about 100 species of Primulas. Sikkim is also rich in faunal species such species such as the sheep, red panda and rare pheasants such as Khalij, Monal, Snow Leopard, Musk Dear, Himalayan Thar, Blue Sheep, Tibetan Sheep and Tragopans etc.

The State Government has adopted a conservation oriented forest policy aimed at preserving the forests and restricting the commercial activities to plantation thinning only. In line with this approach legal provisions have also been reviewed in order to make them foolproof and stringent. Cases of illicit smuggling and felling of trees are being pursued in the Courts of law. This has placed a certain amount of pressure on the Forest, Environment and Wildlife Department to provide logistics of infrastructure to the territorial divisions to carry out forest protection functions. Such means may also include items which are of recurring nature but which are to be freated as Plan items in view of the services provided by forests both in economic as well as social terms. The Planning Commission and the Ministry of Environment and Forests have also recognized forest protection measures to be Plan expenditures.

The major components under forest protection consists of fencing of forest establishments, providing of means for patrolling by hiring of vehicles as well by maintaining patrol vehicles, construction of forest quarters especially for the forest guards in the remote areas, replacement of outdated vehicles, procurement of arms and ammunition, training in the use of arms, wireless communication, construction of cattle pounds, construction of log huts, purchase of equipments such as camping gear, purchase of books and stationary for legal matters, purchase of computers, purchase of survey instruments. The projected physical and financial forecast are as follows.

(IV) Infrastructure Development

Rs 25.00 lakh.

Forestry has always been the major land use in the State with 81% of the geographical area of the State being under the administrative control of the Forest Department. After the demarcation of the forestlands in 1914 the Department was formally constituted. At this inception one Forest Manager who used to be assisted by the Range Officer and two forest guards managed the forests. After 1975 the department saw a lot of diversification in of its activities and consequently the creation of a large number of Divisions and the subordinate staff under them.

The Forest, Environment and Wildlife Department has more than 250 forest guards posted exclusively in remote areas where no accommodation is available. These guards are supposed to stay close to or within forest areas in order to guard them effectively. But presently due to lack of quarters they are having to stay in the nearby villages and townships on rent and this way spend a considerable time in reaching the forests, which they are supposed to protect. It is therefore proposed to undertake construction of block office-cum-quarters and forest guard’s quarters in all the four territorial divisions to meet this shortfall during the tenth Plan.

Details have been worked out on the requirement of a quarters at the various levels in the State. It is seen from the statement that in nearly 90% postings of personnel there is no accommodation available and the staff are staying in rented accommodation. Even office accommodation for most of the staff is not adequate.

The position with respect to requirement of accommodation is given in the following list. It is seen from this that there is a need to provide a large number of quarters in the forest department. This can only make for effective administration and protection of forests.

6. SOCIAL FORESTRY

During the 9th Five Year Plan social forestry was given special emphasis by introduction of Joint Forest Management where participation of the local communities was initiated for protection, management, and regeneration of degraded forests adjoining villages, khasmals and gaucharans. This scheme comprises of three sub-schemes and is a continuing scheme in the 10th Five Year Plan.

Social Forestry was started in early 1980’s in Sikkim with a humble beginning and over the years if has assumed major role in forestry development through state and central assistance over the various plan periods. The policy regarding the use of land, access to productive resources, participation, and empowerment of rural population in planting, design, implementation and management of plantation areas are the key determinants for success of programme. The State Government has been creating favourable environmental, legal and policy conditions and making adjustments in underlying socio-economic and political structure to ensure success. The latest step in the direction is the endowment of authority and responsibility to the local communities for development, protection and management of forests through State Policy of Environment Forest and Land Use and JFM Notification.

The Policy issued by the State Government in year 2000 highlights the need to involve local communities in protection and management of forest areas and stresses to launch ‘a massive need based and time bound programme of afforestation and free planting with main emphasis on production of fuel wood and fodder on degraded and denuded lands both forest and non-forest. It further adds that afforestation being a time specific activity the Government will ensure technical, administrative and financial approval well in advance for all afforestation projects to ensure success of these programme and improve the quality of works’.

Successive JFM resolution envisage promotion regeneration and development of forest areas involving local rural and tribal communities. Recent notification issued in May 2001 further strengthens the JFM Committees to enable them to take up even the good forest area (except the Protected Area Network) with crown density 40% and above also if the area can sustainably yield non timber forest produce (NTFP) including medicinal plants. Making it mandatory to have at least 50% of women in the general body of JFM committees and 33% of women in the Executive body has reduced the gender bias in the JFM committees. Already more than 200 JFM committees have been constituted that are functioning with varying degrees of success in various parts of the state.

The notification also provides for transfer funds for plantation activities carried out under various Centrally Sponsored Schemes directly to JFM Committees wherever they are full involved in plantation works and related forest conservation activities. It may be pertinent to mention that Executive body of JFM committees has representative from Panchayat as a member. This is a significant contribution of the Department in the process of empowerment of local communities as envisaged under the 73rd amendment of Constitution of India and PESA act devolving the authority and responsibility for implementation of various schemes as well as bringing transparency in the whole system of administration.

In the 9th plan period activities under Social Forestry were mainly limited to implementation of 50% Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National Afforestation and Eco-development Board in the Ministry of Environment and Forest. The objectives of the CSS of Area Oriented Fuel Wood and Fodder Project (AOFFP) are as follows:

1. Augmenting Production of fuelwood and fodder through regeneration of Degraded forests and adjoining lands.

2. Promotion of devices/practices that conserve and promote efficient use of fuelwood.

3. Encourage people’s participation in planning, implementation and management of projects.

The physical and financial targets and achievements under the scheme during the 9th Year.

Year

Physical Target (Area in Ha) (Area in Ha)

Financial Target (Rupees in lakhs (Rupees in lakhs)

Physical Achievement

Financial Achievement

1997-98

1314

139.97

1314

139.99

1998-99

1130

134.36

1130

134.37

1999-2000

1130

137.04

1130

133.15

2000-2001

1130

138.85

918

110.00

2001-2002

1130

143.08

720

100.00

Total

5834

693.30

5212

617.51

As is evident from the above the physical and financial achievements under the scheme have fallen short of the targets approved. The main reason for this was inadequate availability of the matching share of State Government.

The State Plan funds need to be adequately augmented so that large extent of Khasmal, Gaucharan lands and available degraded forest areas cold be appropriately treated. Adequate provisions need to be kept if the gap between the demand and supply of fuelwood and fodder is to be narrowed aiming at increasing the forest cover of the State, which, as per the state of forest cover report of Forest Survey of India has shown a substantial decline in the recent past as the dense forest areas have been converted to areas with open canopy. This is also essential to give the required thrust to programme of involvement of rural communities in development, protection and regeneration of forest areas and to make the JFM committees more effective.

II) Aesthetic and Urban Forestry

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 85.00 lakhs Physical Target : 110 Ha

In the 9th Five Year Plan, Rs 140.00 lakhs was allocated out of which Rs 20.00 Lakhs was spent for creation of Heritage Park at Namchi South Sikkim and Rs 40.00 Lakhs for protection of Rabdentse R.F. for creation of proposed bird sanctuary. The remaining Rs 80.00 lakhs was spent on creation and maintenance of Saramsa Garden and Orchidarium. With adjoining degraded forestland from Rangpo to Nathula in East. Melli to Gyalshing in South/West, Singtam to Namchi-Jorethang in South and Gangtok to Mangan in North/East Districts have been proposed in the 10th Five year Plan. Planting with both indigenous and exotic plant species including shrubs, climbers and epiphytes both from the point of view of preservation of the rich gene pool besides beautification in urban areas. Creation of Hertage Park at Tsamgang, Namchi, South Sikkim, Development of infrastructure in the proposed Bird Sanctuary at Rabdentse, Creation of alpine botanical garden at Gangtok are some of the schemes earmarked for the 10th Five Year Plan. Annual Plan 2002-2003 are as follows.

(iii) Sericulture Development

Annual Plan 2003-2004: Rs 60.00 lakhs Physical Target: 31 Ha.

The Sericulture scheme as being implemented by the Directorate of Sericulture since after the sanction and approval given the government of Sikkim envisages with the activities like adaptation of farmers in the line of Mulberry sericulture practices and development Nurseries. The main aim and objectives of the Sericulture Scheme that has been patronized and being implemented is based on the following.

1. To provide the technology of agro-based industry to the famers of different villages

2. To extend the held and guidance (financial and technical) support to the interested farmer.

3. To uplift the economic condition of the rural people by generating the income out of the limited landed property of the farmers.

4. To create the awareness of self-employment opportunity amongst the educated people.

5. to augment the required infrastructures for the increase of productivity of the existing govt. sericulture Farms and Nurseries.

In fact the work undertaken by the department during the 9th plan period was quite satisfactory in respect of target achievement however, the productivity of the farms/ nurseries and in the villages remain below the satisfactory mark. In spite of every efforts of the department, there have been the negligence in the practice of sericulture by the adopted farmers and some have neglected totally, thereby creating another list of defaulters. In the 9th Five Year Plan, Rs 500.00 lakhs was earmarked for development of sericulture in the State out of which Rs 158.39 lakhs was spent in the 9th Five Year Plan by adopting 300 farmers in mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing.

The reason may be not the same for all the farmer but the remedy should be the same in all respect of defaulter farmers. Thus, this time the fund provision for the revitalization of old neglecting sericulture farmers have been made in addition to the work items as included in the previous scheme. The size of the annual fund however, is limited to the amount remain as spill over of Rs 341.61 lakhs out the total sanctioned amount of Rs 500.00 lakhs. And including all the works that was pending annual work programmes have been finalized to continue in the 10th Five-Year Plan. 500 farmers will be taken as beneficiaries for mulberry cultivation in the 10th Five Year Plan and 200 Hectares of wasteland will be developed for mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing.

6. FOREST PRODUCE

(I) CONSERVATION AND PROPAGATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 2.00 lakhs

Sikkim is one of the Biodiversity Hot Sports of the Country. A variety of low as well as high altitude medicinal plants and herbs are available which require protection. Some of the medicinal plants are in extinction threshold and need immediate attention for their protection and propagation.

(ii) THINNING OF OLD PLANTATIONS

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 8.00 lakhs

The Plantations raised by the Departments prior to 1985 are to be thinned for improvement of the crop hygene and to meet the demand of the people for timber and fuelwood. It has been proposed to carry out thinning starting from the older plantations in all the districts. For this work, an outlay of Rs 40.00 lakhs has been proposed in the 10th Five Year Plan.

8. RESEARCH, EDUCATION & EXTENSION

Sikkim as a whole, when considered micro-climatically has a tremendous scope of working on its bio-resources particularly, non-timber forest produces. Orchids and bamboos besides its faunal richness. The whole of the state can be converted into a focal site of eco-tourism which is one of the services of non timber forest produces. Having such unique heritage and richness in bio-resources we are yet to make any headway on out part so far any systematic forestry research is concerned. In the 9th Five Year Plan. No separate scheme of forestry and wildlife research was implemented due to lack of financial resources. If has been proposed to take up research activities in a systematic manner in the 10th Five Year Plan. This scheme is an on-going scheme of the 9th Five Year Plan.

(I) Forestry Research

Annual Plan 2003-2004: Rs 35.50 lakhs

The Research, Education and Extension Circle in Forests, Environment and Wildlife Department came into being in the year 1997. The Silviculture Division and Research wing of Wildlife are the other wings included under this circle. After the inception of this circle a National level seminar sportsored by ICFRE Dehradun was organized by this circle IN 1998. many research regional activities were finalized and submitted to ICFRE, through the regional Officer institute of Forestry productivity, Ranchi. Of the many research projects selected the five numbers of Research projects were prioritised and submitted to ICFRE Dehradun through regional office Ranchi. Accordingly the details project for the following research activities have been submitted by us.

1. G.I.S.

2. Environmental status survey of urban areas of Sikkim.

3. Bio-diversity.

4. Seed stand improvement

5. Nursery technologies.

(II) Wildlife Research

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 2.00 lakhs

Wildlife and Forestry research is a scientific job involving total dedication to the subject and work beyond the call of government duty Almost every forest area, national park or sanctuary in the country has a Research Officer to gather wildlife and hebitat information for scientific study and to assist in the long-term management of these key and often bio-diverse areas.

In Sikkim wildlife research and extension is being carried out at present by the Sr. Research Officer (Wildlife). Large amount of information has been gathered from all corners of the state Still, there have been many problems in ensuring smooth and unhindered progress of research works. Lack of support staff motivation of otherwise contrasts sharply wit the sympathy and encouragement from the superiors. There is lack of visible, immediate achievements. It has hence been difficult for a bureaucratic setup to ensure sufficient budget and logistic support. Put simply, in a really research-based organization the work achieved over the last decade would have been more efficiently completed in much shorted time.

Now to streamline the ongoing wildlife research activities for fruitful results, a proposal has been worked out. It aims at establishing a full-fledged Research Education and Extension Cell with all the requisites including backup of reliable and reputed scientific organizations. This would help to tap a lot of latent talent lying in various government departments or even create employment opportunities for the educated unemployed youth. Those of them interested in further research would have ample opportunity to pursue their interests in their own State and a covered chance to work in one of the world’s best biodiversity hotspots.

It is widely acknowledged that today more and more attention is being directed towards research in various fields. Wildlife research as an academic field occupies a special position. Already there are many organizations, which have targeted Sikkim as one of India’s most unique biodiversity study areas. Many of the interested international funding organizations could be tapped for research proposals from Sikkim.

Works Executed so far and continuing on Wildlife Research:

1. Field Research Activities: Extensive baseline surveys in remote far-flung areas in appropriate seasons for endangered species of wildlife.

2. Butterfly Park: Preliminary works completed on establishing a Butterfly Park for environment enrichment, awareness, revenue generation from visitation fees and job opportunities for local people.

3. Nature Education: Lectures, workshops, talks and audio-visual presentations to Army, schools, mountaineers, tourist guides, teachers, officers of the government at AATI, SIRD, etc.

4. Publicity: Production of all wildlife brochures, T-shirts, stickers, etc. for Wildlife Week programmes, talks on AIR.

5. Publications: (a) Scientific publications in journals and newsletters; (b) Departmental Newsletters (First three issues of ‘PANDA’); (c) Technical Reports on research works conducted so far.

6. Presentation of Scientific Papers and representation during symposia, seminars and workshops at national and international forums.

9. PREPARATION OF THE FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN/ WORKING PLAN

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 60.35 Lakhs

In pursuance to the order of the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India dated 12th December 1996 anmed 15th Nanuary 1998 in Writ Petition (Civil) No. 202 of 1995 (T.N Godavarman Thirumulkpad versus Union of India and Others), the management plans for working in the forests of all the four districts of the state are to be prepared as early as possible and seek approval of the Government of India for implementation. The Department prepared Working Plan for South District and Submitted to the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India in the year 2001. The Ministry has returned Working Plan document after some observations for rectifications which is being taken care of by the Department and will be resubmitted to the Ministry for approval. For preparing the working plans for the remaining three districts, the following works have been proposed in the 10th Five Year Plan.

A. Inventory of the Forest Resources (Trees): Total inventory of the forest resources will be taken up for trees in those areas where working is to be done in the succeeding years. In total an areas of 2500 Ha, is proposed to be taken up during the plan period and on year wise basis 500 Ha per year. The basis of expenditure is as follows.

For complete enumeration of one Hectare of forest area, on an average 8 per sons are required in one day (making two groups, one group making enumeration of 400 trees in one day). The cost component coming out to be Rs 400/- per Hectare. The total cost is Rs 10 lakhs.

B. Survey and Mapping of occurrences of important medicinal plants: The survey using sample plots is to be conducted in an area of nearly 3000 Square Km above 6000 altitude. One sample plot of dimensions 10m X10m in an area of 1 sq.km. Nearly 10-12 important species will be covered. Species wise occurrence mapping will be taken up Nearly 600 sample plots will be taken up in a year. All these are in areas 6000 amsl. The basis of expenditure is Rs 500 per sample plot. This includes cost of camping in the area portage etc. clearing of weeds, unwanted branches. The total cost is Rs 15 lakhs.

C. Biodiversity Survey: In the Bio Diversity survey, area important from the bio diversity points of view will be identified and intensive survey will be taken up in those areas. A sample plot per square km will be taken up in the R.F. areas. The dimensions of the plot will be 44.72m. diagonal. The sample plot areas will be. 1 Ha. Regeneration survey will be a part of it. The basis of expenditure is Rs 1000/- per Hectare. Five persons will be engaged for four days. The works include Survey of entire area, survey & inventory of existing flora Botanisation of important species, Laying out of preservation plots with 100m X 100m area, compass survey of the blank and degraded area for in-situ/ex-situ conservation. The total cost is 12.5 lakhs.

D. Stock Mapping: During the plan period the detailed working plan survey will be completed. Already the survey is being done for the preparation of the working plan. Total 4000 sq. km. Area will be taken up for the survey during the plan period. This will be done during the initial years of the plan period so as to complete the working plan early. The basis of expenditure is: for 100 Ha. Eight persons @600 Rs per 100 Ha of stock survey. The works include stock mapping assessment of crop, vegetation mapping, studies of forest density grazing and fire incidences, micro climatic factors etc. The total cost is 24 lakhs.

E. Machinery and Equipments: The working plan wing is severely lacking in the necessary system support in the form of essential machinery and equipments. In order to keep abreast with the latest developments in the forestry sector, it is imperative for the department to bolster its essential base of the machinery and equipments. A composite GIS workstation is proposed with following features.

F. It will be updation of the existing GIS facility in the department viz very much outdated to transfer it to the windows NT along with additional facilities like cartographic map finishing, image processing software etc. Tentatively Rs 17 lakhs are required. The total projection in this head is Rs 50.00 lakhs.

G. Other than this a component of Rs 10.00 lakhs is kept for the procurement of upgraded software.

10. TRAINING AND EXTENSION

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 6.00 lakhs

The Department of Forests, Environment and Wildlife has 30 IFS Officers, 40 SFS Officers, 130 Range Officers, 110 Block Officers and 350 Forest Guards and Head Forest Guards. The IFS Officers are required to attend Compulsory trainings once every year. The SFS Officers also have to attend several refresher courses for capacity buildings. The newly appointed Block Officers and Forest Guards too are to be sent for training before they are given responsible assignments. The Department also has to organise awareness and extension programmes from time to time for protection of Forest and Environment. With the Introduction of Joint Forest Management in the State in the year 1998. The Village Forest Committees too are to be imparted training on protection management and regeneration of forests. For the above activities, an outlay of Rs 30.00 lakhs has been proposed for the 10th Five Year Plan.

11. WILDLIFE PRESERVATION

(I) DIRECTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 38.20 lakhs

The Wildlife Wing of the Department is headed b the Chief Wildlife Warden and the Chief Conservator of Forest (Wildlife). The Wing has two Circles viz. Wildlife Circle and Parks and Zoo Circle. There are three Wildlife Divisions. To cover the Direction and Administration cost of the newly appointed Block Officers, Forest Guards and for the proposed appointment of 4 Assistant Conservators of Forests, one in each district, an outlay of Rs 38.20 lakhs has been proposed.

(ii) HIMALAYAN ZOOLOGICAL PARK, BULBULEY

Annual Plan 2003-2004: Rs 50.00 lakhs

Himalayan Zoological Park at Bulbuley, Gangtok was started in the 8th Five Year Plan and continued in the 9th Five Year Plan. This is an on-going scheme of the 8th Five Year Plan which has continued in 9th as well as 10th Five Year Plan. The details of the project are as under.

1. Establishment of Project started

1991-92

2. Initial Project Cost

Rs 467.00

3. Revised Project Cost (1997)

Rs 675.55

4. Revised Project Cost (2000)

Rs 1,064/00

 

A. Expenditure upto 9th Plan

Rs 395.03 lakhs

B. Fresh Proposal for 10th Plan

Rs 1,504.60 lakhs.

TOTAL OF (A+B)

Rs 1,899.63 lakhs

 

ANIMAL HOUSED IN THE ZOO

Sl. No

Species

Male

Female

Total

1.

Himalayan Black Bear

1

1

2

2.

Barking Deer

1

4

5

3.

Goral

2

-

2

4.

Red Panda

4

1

5

5.

Tibetan Wolf

1

1

2

6.

Leopard

1

1

2

7.

Leopard Cat

1

1

2

8.

Palm Civet

3

1

4

9.

Impean Pheasant

1

1

2

10.

Tragopan Pheasant

1

-

1

11.

Common hill patridge

1

-

 
 

TOTAL

17

11

28

 

PHYSICAL TARGET COMPLETED TILL THE END OF 9TH PLAN.

Sl. No

Name of Work

PHY

FIN ( in lakhs)

A.

Animal Housing

(Enclosure area)

 

1.

Himalayan Black Bear

18,366 m2

19.01

2.

Barking Deer

20,000 m2

7.39

3.

Red Panda

690 m2

6.49

4.

Pheasant

300 m2

6.99

5.

Spotted Deer

20,000 m2

8.26

6.

Monkey

2,250 m2

12.95

7.

Palm Cat

400 m2

4.81

8.

Leopard Cat

400 m2

4.80

9.

Wolf

1,500m2

14.69

10.

Goral

13,000 m2

18.52

11.

Snow Leopard

1,800 m2

15.31

12.

Common Other

800 m2

6.55

13.

Serow (Phase I)

15,000 m2

14.81

14.

Musk Dear

10,000 m2

17.11

15.

Leopard

950 m2

21.66

B.

Infrastructure

PHY.

FIN. (In lakhs)

16.

Peripheral fence

11 km

43.28

17.

Road

3 km

67.18

18.

Foot Path

4 km

4.98

19.

Water Supply

Phase I

7.98

20.

Power installation

Phase 1

7.16

21.

Entry & Exit Gate

2 nos.

8.07

22.

Class IV Quarter

2 nos.

7.17

23.

Feed Store

1 no.

3.90

24.

Halting shed

2 nos.

0.63

25.

Landscaping & beautification

1 Ha.

4.00

26.

Field Officer

1 No.

4.63

27.

Public Toilets

2 nos.

3.68

28.

Tranquilising equipments

1 set.

1.50

C.

Miscellaneous.

   

29

Direction & Administration including animal feed

52.39

 

TOTAL

 

395.03 lakhs

In the Annual Plan 2002-2003, an outlay of Rs 50.00 lakhs has been proposed.

(III) PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENT

Over 30% of the total forest area of the state is being managed as protected area network comprising of Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park, Following are the details of the protected areas set aside for protection and preservation of the flora and fauna in the State.

Sl. No

Name of Protected Area

District

1.

Khangchendzonga National Park

North & West

2.

Shinba Rhodendron Sanctuary

North

3.

Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary

East

4.

Fambonglho Wildlife Sanctuary

East

5.

Menam Wildlife Sanctuary

South

6.

Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary

West

(A) Wildlife Sanctuary

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 12.50 lakhs

Besides, the State Government has proposal to create two more sanctuaries viz. Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary and Rabdentse Bird Sanctuary in the 10th Five Year Plan. Till the end of the 9th Five Year Plan, these protected areas were being managed will the fund provided by the Government of India as 100% C.S. grant but there is no surety of continuation of the grant in the 10th Five Year Plan. As such, it has been proposed to provide fund for management of these protected areas in the State Plan in the 10th Five Year Plan. An outlay of Rs 12.50 lakhs has been proposed for management of these sanctuaries during the Annual Plan.

(iv) Wildlife Preservation in Multiple Use Areas

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 1.10 lakhs

Apart from the protected areas, protection of wildlife is also essential in areas of multiple use. The Department has been maintaining Rustamji Park at Tashiling. This deer park is to be maintained. Rare and endangered species of flora and fauna are also available outside the protected areas which are very much vulnerable to poaching. Since no fund was provided in the 9th Five Year Plan for protection of wildlife in multiple use areas which are located outside the protected areas it has been proposed to keep fund in the 10th Five Year Plan for protection and preservation of wildlife outside the protected areas. An outlay of Rs 1.10 lakhs has been proposed in the Annual Plan.

12. SPECIAL PROGRAMME FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Wasteland Development

Grants-in-aid to Zila Panchayat

State Share of IWDP Schemes

With the revision of Government of India Guidelines for implementation of the Integrated Wastelands Development Projects (IWDP), the funding pattern in this scheme is Rs 5500 central: Rs 500 state. In all IWDP schemes sanctioned by the Government of India w.e.f. 01.01.200, the cost per hectares is Rs 6,000 out of which the Government of India bears Rs 5500 and the State Government has to bear Rs 500.

The following IWDP schemes are sanctioned by the Government of India in the year 2001-2002 for implementation in East District of Sikkim.

1. IWDP Scheme in Martam-Tadong Watershed

 

Total Sanctioned Amount

Rs 3,60,00,000.00

Total Central Share

Rs 3,30,00,000.00

Total State Share

Rs 30,00,000.00

First instalment 15%

Rs 54,00,000.00

Central Share in First instalment

Rs 49,50,000.00

State Share in First instalment

Rs 4,50,000.00 (A)

2. IWDP Scheme in Karthok-Sumin Watershed

 

Total Sanctioned Amount

Rs 3,70,62,000.00

Total Centre Share

Rs 3,39,73,000.00

Total State Share

Rs 30,89,000.00

First instalment 15%

Rs 55,59,000.00

Central Share in First instalment

Rs 50,95,000.00

State Share in First insatalment

Rs 4,64,000.00 (B)

Total of (A) and (B)

Rs 9,14,000.00

Or Say

Rs 9,20,000.00

 

As such Rs 9,20 lakhs has been proposed as grant in aid to Zilla Panchayat, east District as State against the first instalment released by the Government of India in the above two schemes.

ABSTRACT

Sl.

No

Name of Scheme

10th Five Year Plan

Annual Plan 2002-2003

Physical

Financial

Physical

Financial

Kms.

Area in Ha

Rupees in Lakhs

Kms.

Area in Ha

Rupees in Lakhs

1.

Direction & Administration

-

-

885.00

-

-

98.60

2.

Planning & Statistics

-

-

130.00

-

-

21.7

3.

Monitoring Evaluation and Impact Assessment

-

-

20.00

-

-

-

4.

Survey & Utilization of Forest Resources

-

-

100.00

53

-

20.00

5.

Forest Conservation, Development and Regeneration

           

(i)

Afforestation Schemes

-

1200

275.00

-

115

35.50

(ii)

Forest Protection

-

-

145.00

-

-

54.50

6.

Social Forestry

           

(i)

Area Oriented Fuelwood & Fodder Plantation

-

1200

275.00

-

133

40.00

(ii)

Aesthetic & Urban Forestry

-

600

300.00

-

110

85.00

(iii)

Sericulture Development

-

200

250.00

-

31

60.00

7.

Forest Produce

           

(i)

Conservation and Propagation of Medicinal Plants

-

-

10.00

-

-

2.00

(ii)

Thinning of Old Plantations

-

-

40.00

-

-

8.00

8.

Research Education & Extension

           

(i)

Forestry Research

-

-

100.00

-

-

20.00

(ii)

Wildlife Research

-

-

90.00

-

-

17.50

9.

Preparation of Forest Management Plan/ Working Plan

-

-

200.00

-

-

60.35

10.

Training & Extension

-

-

30.00

-

-

6.00

11.

Wildlife Preservation

           

(i)

Direction and Admn.

-

-

200.00

-

-

38.20

(ii)

Himalayan Zoological Park

-

-

200.00

-

-

50.00

(iii)

Protected Area Management

           

(a)

Wildlife Sanctuaries

-

-

65.00

-

-

12.50

(b)

National Park

-

-

-

-

-

-

(c)

Wildlife Preservation in Multiple Use Areas

-

-

5.00

-

-

1.10

12.

Development of Infrastructure

-

-

180.00

-

-

25.00

13.

Grant in aid to Zilla Panchayat being State

-

-

-

-

-

9.20

 

TOTAL

232

3200

3500.00

53

389

664.20

 

SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION (FORESTS)

The entire state of Sikkim lie along the lower Himalayan belt rendering the land susceptible to slips and slides. Torrential rains aggravate the already existing erosion problem eating away large chunks of soil during the monsoon period causing flood and devastation in the low region. Economic development in the shape of road building, construction of power station, the spread of urban areas and the increasing hunger for agricultural land also have serious implication as far as soil conditions are concerned. Soil erosion is mainly caused due to hill denudation as the need for timber and fuel increase due to the ever-increasing population. Surface runoff is a major factor when fertile topsoil is washed away to Teesta & Rangest rivers. This unfortunate development can have far reaching economic and environmental repercussion not only in the whole of India but perhaps in other parts of the World either through the complex network of global economic interdependence or by contact with adjacent ecosystem. The situation in the Himalayan belt is of extreme concern as the entire eco-system is facing widespread degradation and has led to perceptible reduction in land productivity due to erosion, excessive rainwater run off and reduction in ground water discharge.

The soil and water conservation programme, therefore occupies a paramount place in the overall developmental activities of the State. This programme therefore has to have a proper and suitable combination of both engineering and vegetative measures without which the fragile and steep slopes of Sikkim would continue to succumb to the torrential rains. Apart from integrated conservation measures within the identified watersheds, equal importance has also been accorded to tackle the erosion problem and minimise ecological disturbances outside the watershed areas.

Sikkim abounds in a number of high altitude perennial lakes which from the sources of water feeding the main rivers. Preservation of these water sources is of utmost importance for human life and to keep the sources alive. Water harvesting technique in encouraged in areas where rainfall is scanty.

During the 9th Plan period afforestation of 962.33 hectares, 103 Hectares of Soil and Moisture Conservation Works through vegetative measures along with 140 cubic metres of engineering works have been achieved in the identified watersheds. The major challenge therefore is to devise suitable location specific solutions so as to accelerate the developmental process and ensure sustainable development of the growing population as well as help maintain the ecology of the hill areas of Sikkim.

Activities carried out in the 9th Five Year Plan.

Sl.

No

District

Activities carried out during the 9th Five Year Plan

Afforestation

Soil & moisture conservation (Vegetative measures in Ha)

Engineering works in cubic metres

1.

North

90.00

-

-

2.

East

322.50

19.00

-

3.

South

321.50

67.00

140.00 cu.m.

4.

West

228.33

17.00

-

 

Total

962.33

103.00

140.00

 

During the 10th Five Year Plan the following activities are proposed to be undertaken in an enhanced manner under the State Plan.

1. Survey & studies of already existing landslide and landslip prone areas.

2. Reclamation & Rehabilitation activities through suitable engineering and vegetative measures.

3. Provide protection to all towns and settlement areas from flood by training rivers & jhoras through engineering works.

4. Provide efficient network of surface drainage system based on scientific investigation & design along with anti-erosion works in some of the chronic landslide zones.

STRATEGY FOR 10TH FIVE-YEAR PLAN

Size of the Plan: Financial – Rs 80.00 lakhs

The entire State of Sikkim located along the Himalayan belt has a very young geological formation with extreme susceptibility to soil disturbance due to natural & seismic factors. Further the torrential rains that the state experience during the entire monsoon period, starting from the middle of May to almost end of October also has a very severe impact on the soil structure. All these factors combined together bring about landslides, soil erosion and loss of green cover.

The two main rivers with its various tributaries have high current due to topographical features & during the period of monsoon when the discharge increase, if increase the quantity of loss, sometimes taking away vast areas of forest & private lands.

Further, the two major catchment areas of the rivers Rangeet & Teesta were studied by M/S HAQ consultants who have recommended measures of enormous significance for conservation of green cover, catchment area treatment & control of water flow from these areas.

The major catchment of these rivers have been divided into 30 watersheds & the Forest Department of the State government is carrying out the activities as suggested by the consultants on priority basis.

1. Direction & Administration

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 17.00 lakhs

The treatment of all the identified watersheds has become most essential to arrest soil erosion & augment the water regime. The department therefore, has to strengthen the team of officers under the soil & water conservation section of the Forests, environment and Wildlife Department for taking up the activities effectively. The cost of Direction and Administration of River Valley Project Division has to be borne under this scheme. In addition, the establishment cost of 10 Block Officers, 20 Forest Guards and 4 Assistant Conservator of Forests to be directly recruited during the 10th Five Year Plan is to be met from this scheme. The Statistical Cell of Land Use and Environment Wing of the Department has to be computerised for creation of database of individual watersheds.

3. Soil conservation in the Watershed Areas

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 54.00 lakhs
Physical target (Afforestation): 90 Ha
Engineering Works: 3,600 Cubic Metres

The vulnerable areas in all the identified watersheds have been identified in the entire State and these areas are required to be treated with a package of measures involving afforestation, land management, protective works, vegetative propagation, natural regeneration and other biological measures. Apart from afforestation, it is proposed to take p protective works of biological nature. Barbed wire fencing will be provided wherever required in order to see that the biotic interference is totally eliminated from the landslide prone areas. If has been proposed to take up afforestation and other biological measures in 900 Ha of degraded forest areas in 30 identified micro-watersheds. Low cost engineering measures to the tune of 36,000 are to be carried out to check landslides in these watershed to carry out that above activities.

4. Soil Conservation in Other Areas

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 8.50 lakhs
Physical Target (Afforestation): 30 Ha.
Engineering Works: 550Cubic Metres

Besides the 30 identified watersheds, there are areas which are not identified as watershed but require substantial treatment for conservation of soil and moisture. Soil conservation outside the identified watersheds is also to be taken up to minimise soil erosion & to improve the water regime. It has been proposed to carry out afforestation in an area of 30 Ha and engineering measures of 550 cubic metres in these areas.

5. Conservation & Preservation of Perennial Water Sources

Annual Plan 2002-2003: Rs 3.00 lakhs Physical Target : 6 Ha.

The State of Sikkim is endowed with a number of small streams and other water sources, which are being used for different purposes. Due to natural & man-made factors, many of them have already dried up & others are facing the same future. The conservation measures for these areas are proposed on top priority to sustain the water sources in rural areas. Rejuvenation of these water holes with proper protection with stone wall fencing at source and planting of water inducing species on the uphill side and around the sources will increase the period of water availability in these water holes. To sustain water availability during lean period, the above activities are proposed to be carried out in one Ha. Area of each water hole covering 50 such water holes during the 10th Five Year Plan.

7. State Land Use Board

The State Land Use Board was constituted in 1984. Since then, the Board has put in considerable effort towards establishing its office and to take up activities, in order to ensure the optimum & proper utilisation of land resources. The varied Board is the highest forum of Land Use Planning & co-ordination of all issues connected with scientific management of land resources. Besides, the Board is taking initiative in creating public awareness and in mobilising support for environmental protection & pollution control.

ABSTRACT

Sector: Soil and Water Conservation

Sl. No

Name of Scheme

10th Five Year Plan

Annual Plan 2002-2003

Physical

Financial

Physical

Financial

Cubic Metres

Area in Ha

Rupees in Lakh

Cubic Metres

Area in Ha

Rupees in Lakh

1.

Direction & Administration

-

-

250.00

-

-

17.00

2.

Survey & Investigation

-

-

6.00

-

-

-

3.

Soil Conservation in Watershed Areas

36,000

900

540.00

3,600

90

54.00

4.

Soil Conservation in Other Areas

11,000

600

170.00

550

30

8.50

5.

Conservation & Preservation of Perennial Water

 

34

17.00

-

20

3.00

6.

Extension & Training

-

-

7.00

-

-

-

7.

State Landuse Board

-

-

15.00

-

-

2.50

 

TOTAL

47,000

1,534

1,000.00

4,150

140

85.00

 

 

 

 

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